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Expert Author Peter Demmon

Hopefully, you will never have to deal with a pet dog that has a brain tumor. If you ever do, this article should give a decent thumbnail sketch about what your pet might go through. A brain tumor exhibits specific symptoms, is relatively manageable, but is an incurable affliction. A brain tumor might be one of the saddest misfortunes that a dog can suffer through. There are several different methods for treating a dog with such a tumor, but the reality is that your dog will never be the same again.

Technically, the words "brain tumor" means a growth in the brain. Unfortunately, this definition has been sullied with the assumption that it is only cancer related. However, a brain tumor can simply mean an abnormal growth of tissue on the brain. A primary brain tumor is the result of brain cells growing abnormally within the brain and its membranes. The other kind is a cancer that has spread to the brain from elsewhere in the body. In the case of a cancerous tumor, there is no true cure that guarantee 100% remission. In fact, most brain tumors cannot be cured, but can only be treated.

Brain tumors can affect the forebrain, the brainstem and the cerebellum (just above the brainstem). That is to say, the front of the brain, the back of the brain and the tube that leads to the brain. Tumors affect each area of the brain differently. If a tumor is plaguing a dog's brain, there is a general series of symptoms that can take place depending on the location of the tumor. It is wise to suspect a brain tumor if your dog is over 5 years old and has developed any negative neurological signs. A seizure is one of the key signs that your dog is suffering from a neurological disorder. Other visible neurological disorders might be the loss of balance, wobbly walking, difficulty swallowing, facial paralysis, head tilting leaning in a direction, loss of sight or hearing, loss of balance, head-shaking, difficulty jumping, spastic motions, eyes opening and closing strangely, weakness, a general lack of proper coordination, or even paralysis. If any of these behaviors are exhibited with an older dog, it is a good idea to at least check-in with a vet and see what might be afoot.

Neurological disorders are rather easy to define, but there is a subset of other behaviors that could start that would take a much more discerning owner to connect the dots in a brain tumor direction. Some of these symptoms might include the loss of memories (not following commands so well), an obvious onset of depression, an increased or decreased appetite or thirst, uninspired aggression, vomiting, irritability, loss of bladder control,, and even can all be potential signals. Sometimes the dog acts like they are actually in pain, whimpering. One of the most interesting symptoms however, is the pressing of their head against hard surfaces (possibly to ease pressure?).

There are no known preventative measures for a brain tumor. They just happen. Age seems to be a common denominator though, with 95% of canine mengiomas (slow growing tumors that put pressure on the brain) occurring in dogs over 7 years old. Sometimes, the dog might go for a substantial amount of time with a tumor on their brain unbeknownst to the dog's owner. Because such tumors are slow growing, the brain is in a position to adjust and possibly offset negative symptoms for a period of time.

It is unfortunate that dogs can't talk and owners are left to make a determination if the behavior is serious based on their dog's behavior. A dog owner shouldn't blame themselves or their lifestyle for the tumor. Nor should they hold it against themselves for not knowing sooner. The onset of behaviors such as those mentioned in the previous paragraph can happen quickly or slowly over a period of time. Furthermore, a benefit to your dog is the fact that your dog has no idea what is happening.

The only way to truly be sure that your dog has a tumor on his brain is to have an MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) administered, which is basically a brain scan. A tissue biopsy is needed to determine if the tumor is cancerous. It is also a good idea to get your dog a complete physical and some routine blood work. Without treatment the average survival time for a brain tumor is 6-10 months. With some treatment, a dog's life can be increased up to 2 more years. Solutions are surgery, radiation, chemotherapy and Palliative (pain relieving, usually steroids such as dexamethasone, prednisone, and methylprednisolone to stop the swelling) care, also, a regimen of anti-epileptic drugs to control seizures. Possible solutions are surgery (where the tumor is cut out), radiation therapy, and chemotherapy

While there isn't a preventative method or even a clear-cut definition as to the causes of brain tumors in dogs, we can use the causes for human brain tumors as a template. While some may be a bit extreme, the general assumption is that brain tumors in humans are caused by the following: genetics, radiation exposure, serious head injuries, pesticides, cancer-causing solvents, electromagnetic fields, and possibly even nitrosamines (found in processed meats). The theories are so broad that some feel that brain tumors could be the result of any number or combination of diet, environment, genetic, chemical or immune system factors.

One of the ugliest things a dog owner can go through with their pet is dealing with a brain tumor. There are a lot of signs that point to the existence of a brain tumor, but the diagnosis is what a dog owner needs. Unfortunately, the solutions are merely extensions in time and not an absolute solution. There are several different methods for treating a dog with a brain tumor, and hopefully someday there will be more than just a list of symptoms and methods to manage such a disease.

 

Expert Author Peter Demmon

Dogs are known scavengers. They will eat or taste just about everything that they find. If a family dog eats the wrong thing, this can be potentially heartbreaking and expensive for the dog owner. Not only should a dog owner make a point of not feeding specific foods to their dog, but they should also make sure that the dog will have absolutely no access to certain foods. If you do a cursory search on the Internet for a comprehensive list of foods that your pet dog should not eat, the main culprits make themselves immediately obvious. Most of the foods that are not good for dogs will not kill your pet outright with a limited dose, but they can be fatal if abused. In part one of this series, I am going to tackle the two main culprits: macadamia nuts and chocolate.

What is amusing about all of the cloned, semi-plagiarized, and half-written articles that are online concerning foods that are bad for dogs is that they all cite macadamia nuts. It is almost humorous, because macadamia nuts aren't exactly a common household item. The warning still needs to be out about them anyway. Perhaps during the Christmas season, macadamia nuts could be more of an issue. But in general, it is safe to say that most households have a dearth of macadamia nuts versus a glut. Whatever the case may be, macadamia nuts and their ill-effects on dogs are at the top of the list.

It seems that it should be a rather simple task to keep macadamia nuts from your dog. If your dog does in fact consume some macadamia nuts, it is good to recognize how potentially serious this could be. For example, one of the extreme symptoms of macadamia nut ingestion can be renal (kidney) failure. Chances are that if your dog consumes macadamia nuts he will probably deal with the general sickness associated with a poisoning such as vomiting, staggering (featuring a general loss of muscle coordination (ataxia)), an abnormally high temperature (hyperthermia), and an increased heart rate. Small amounts of macadamia nuts aren't going to kill your dog, but these are the symptoms that should be watched out for.

Most macadamia nuts are served in or near a chocolatey substance, whether it is a cookie, cake or some other dessert. Chocolate is another common offender to a dog's diet. Probably a big part of this is the fact that it is everywhere. Interestingly enough, studies are split as to whether caffeine naturally occurs in chocolate or not. Whatever the case may be, caffeine is a part of most of the chocolate that you will find in your local supermarket, or household. The subject of chocolate opens up the sub-category of caffeinated foods and beverages, which are also a big part of human daily life. Coffee, tea, energy drinks, soda and a host of other items are infused with caffeine in order to keep us humans up and running. However, the results of caffeine in a dog aren't comfortable for your pet at all. The standard poisoning reactions of vomiting, stomach (abdominal) pain, hyperthermia, arrhythmia (abnormal heartbeat), hyperactivity, and diarrhea are what your dog will experience several hours after exposure to chocolate or caffeinated comestibles.

Obviously, extreme doses of chocolate can lead to extreme reactions, such as seizures, comas and death. Dogs can handle a bit of chocolate though. Some feel that chocolate doses get more toxic when they exceed more than one ounce per body pound of the dog. Caffeine isn't the only alkaloid in chocolate that can affect your dog. Theobromine, another stimulant in chocolate also brings about its share of problems as well. The effects of theobromine are similar to those of caffeine in humans, and it is speculated that this is why so many people are convinced that caffeine is a naturally occurring ingredient in chocolate. Theobromine is a part of the cacao plant and is the primary alkaloid in chocolate. This means that straight cocoa powder is extremely toxic to a dog. This also gives way to the theory that the darker the chocolate the more dangerous it will be for your dog. In order to comprehend the prevalence of theobromine in caffeinated food and drink (specifically energy drinks and sodas) one needs to also know that this alkaloid is also found in the kola nut, coffee aribica, the guarana berry and the tea plant. It is a good thing to know that theobromine and caffeine are probably in your house somewhere, and that they are both extremely dangerous for your dog.

Dogs are potentially in a dangerous position within the average household. In theory, they can get into all sorts of foods and products that can be harmful for them. It is up to the owner to make sure that potentially toxic substances are kept out of a dog's path. Most of the foods that are not good for dogs will not kill your pet outright with a limited dose. Macadamia nuts and chocolate are two that fit into this category. Both are very dangerous for your dog, but hopefully, you won't have to worry about your dog consuming a lethal quantity of it. If you determine that your dog has eaten an unspecified amount of macadamia nuts, chocolate or a substance full of caffeine, do yourself and your dog a favor and take him to the vet immediately.

 

Expert Author Peter Demmon

Dogs are known scavengers. They will eat or taste just about everything that they find. This can make it potentially heartbreaking and expensive for a dog owner. Not only should a dog owner make a point of not feeding specific foods to their dog, but they should also make sure that the dog will have absolutely no access to certain foods. If you do a cursory search on the Internet for a comprehensive list of foods that your pet dog should not eat, the main culprits make themselves immediately obvious. Most of the foods that are not good for dogs will not kill your pet outright with a limited dose, but they can be fatal if abused. In part two of this series, I am going to address alcohol.

Dogs simply do not process alcohol the way that humans do. They require a lot less before they get "tipsy." The ethanol in alcoholic beverages is actually toxic for a dog. The complications (depending upon the dosage) can be rather severe. Furthermore, a tipsy dog isn't funny, but more of a statement of how irresponsible his owner is. Most disturbing is that a person who actively attempts to get their dog drunk is running the serious risk of killing their pet.

When a dog consumes too much alcohol, an amalgam of standard poisoning effects come into play. Vomiting, diarrhea, ataxia (lack of muscle coordination), urination issues, and dehydration are the main symptoms. Drunken responses such as heavy breathing, lethargy, slower reflexes, and impaired mental skills also become obvious. The dog's heart rate adjusts and fluctuates with the alcohol content, and the dog's kidneys now work overtime to flush the alcohol out of the system. Unfortunately, high doses of alcohol can lead to seizures, collapse (blackout), coma and possibly even death for a dog. The thing is that dogs require a lot less alcohol in order to be put over the threshold of alcohol intoxication or poisoning.

The concept of one drinking an alcoholic beverage with their dog, or at least, a beverage referred to as a "beer" is something that has captured the minds of many different dog owners and breweries. If you do a search online for beer for dogs online, you will definitely find some non-alcoholic, non-carbonated suds for your pet. Perhaps this is the solution for dog owners that just have to tilt one back with their dog. Other than that, the stuff is dangerous. In fact, it is generally accepted that a dog that has ingested enough alcohol to have him act "off" is grounds enough to take him to the vet.

In the case of alcohol poisoning, there are a few different things that a veterinarian might do. One is to do an ethanol blood test to determine how much alcohol is in the dog's system. If the amount of alcohol in the dog's system is lethal, the veterinarian may have the drunken dog ingest some activated charcoal. Activated charcoal, while not specifically useful in the absorption of alcohol, will probably do the trick. It works for both human beings and dogs as a decontaminant. It literally absorbs the poison that is in the stomach and in the intestine. Interestingly enough, the power of activated charcoal against poisons was demonstrated in front of the French Academy of Medicine in 1931. A man named Professor Touery drank a strychnine/ charcoal cocktail to demonstrate the value of the charcoal. He lived, and that is how activated charcoal became a catch-all for consumed toxins. Unfortunately, this is just about the best that a drunken dog can get from a vet outside of some intravenous rehydration.

One other suggestion that comes up regularly is the idea of forcing your dog to vomit if he has consumed a lethal amount of alcohol. There are several sites online with explanations on how to achieve this. However, forcing a dog to vomit sounds potentially dangerous, and possibly something that should be done with the assistance of a vet. Most vets have a number that can be called 24 hours a day for the determination if an animal should be taken in for observation or treatment. If a forced vomiting is necessary, the vet will explain that over the phone.

The best solution for this issue is prevention. Alcohol that humans drink isn't the only issue with dogs and alcohol poisoning. Mouthwash contains alcohol as do other bathroom items such as aftershaves and perfumes. The truth of the matter is that a dog is going to probably sample anything that smells amusing and is available. It is up to dog owners to make sure that these items are out of dog-reach. If you determine that your dog has consumed an unspecified amount of alcohol do yourself and your dog a favor and take him to the vet immediately.

 

Expert Author Vladimir Mesic

Are anti snoring devices a waste of your time and money and just a way for companies to make money from snorers desperately trying to stop snoring or can these devices really help you stop snoring seems to be quiet controversial.

So what is the truth?

I was shocked to see yesterday, just by chance, that one of my articles on this same subject at a health website got more than eight thousand views in the last year or so, which made it even more obvious that snoring is of so much an issue to people and that they are searching for solutions.

Being one of the millions that suffer from snoring, you understand how badly it affects you and others in your bed and outside of it.

If you go and search for anti snoring devices for example you get hundreds of thousand results and webpages. There is so much information on so many sites and so many snoring devices available that it gets confusing so you don't know where to start or who's advice to trust..

It gets even more confusing that some research says that there is little scientific evidence to suggest anti snoring devices help snorers to stop snoring yet manufactures come up with their own clinical trials showing the opposite.

Below is a short overview of what I think are the reasons for these contradictions which may help you in deciding if snoring devices can help you.

#1 Different snorers who have used the same snoring device will give different feedback about their experiences, some will say it helped them and that they are thrilled while others will say it did not help them one bit.

This can be explained by the fact that many snorers do not find the cause of their snoring before they buy a device and therefore end up using a wrong one which not only doe not work but could actually do them damage..

So, you need to find out the cause of your snoring first, by getting a medical check up.

One reason is not using the device correctly or the snorer stops using it because it is uncomfortable to use even though it might be a correct choice.

#2 The controversy about there being no scientific evidence for many of these snoring devices really helping snorers, may lie in the fact that not enough independent and thorough clinical trials are carried out for many of these products and the fact that many of the results of these in house trials are dressed up to be better than they actually are or are not extensive enough to pass scientific scrutiny.

#3 As there are so many anti snoring devices out there, like anti snoring chin straps,nasal strips and mouthpieces to name a few popular ones, and people are buying them in thousands every day suggests that they are helping many snorers despite many negative feed backs as well.. These devices may not help the snorers eliminate snoring altogether but they do help the snorer if the device used is the correct one, based on the cause of the snoring and not on the most popular or most expensive snoring device.

To conclude, anti snoring devices will help you stop snoring, but you must first find out the underlying reason for your snoring by consulting a doctor, purchase the correct snoring device and see how comfortable you feel wearing it during sleep, which means you might try a few different products of the same type from different manufacturers until you find something that fulfills your expectation..

 

Expert Author Vladimir Mesic

I've seen a lot, in the building refurbishment and home repair and remodeling industry over the decades, about which I could probably write many books about, if there was enough time. But for now, here is some advice to help you avoid some home remodeling disasters that I have seen happen to others and a few minor ones that happened to me as well.

Please read this very carefully, it could possibly save you money, time, your sanity, even your marriage or relationship with your partner, to name a few. We should learn from other people's mistakes and not just our own. Don't be one of those people.

Important issues you must consider and plan for in advance to keep out of trouble with your remodeling project are:

1. Have the necessary permits before you start work.

After you finished the job it was time for admiration as you thought you did a great remodeling job only to discover that you actually needed a permit for the job. The permit might not be required depending on the job but if you are removing walls and adding new space for example, more than likely, you would need a permit. It would mean the relevant plans and specification done by the engineer, architect or possibly the builder.

2. Related to the permit question is the issue of your remodeling work complying with regulations and the building code.

The plans and paperwork have to comply with the regulation and building code when you get the permit, but the role of the inspector who comes out to check on your project is also to keep workmanship and site safety to an adequate standard.

He or she would check that your project complies with the building code and other regulations and that safe work practices are adhered to.

It is in your interest to have that permit, if required. In having a permit some time during the remodeling but before it's finished the inspector would point out things that have to be changed and corrected which would be hard to do once the job is finished. At the same time you would feel better knowing that the workmanship is of at least an adequate standard.

3. Choose the contractors and tradespeople you will give the job to, well.

Don't be fooled by the smooth talking salesperson or a builder, giving you promises and empty words. You should see their previous remodeling work for your self, their warranty conditions and should come recommended by a trustworthy friend or relative.

4. Check if the contractor has the necessary insurances and check what type of cover you will need yourself.

Don't trust the contractors on his word. Demand a written certificate of currency fro the contractors insurance company.

5. Have a contract with detailed scope of works and specification attached with it. The more detailed and specific it is the better.

It can get very ugly during or near the end of your home remodeling project, when you realize that the contractor is demanding more money or that he is not doing all the work that you thought would be done if the scope of works is too vague on exactly what is included, or not included in the contract.

Having a detailed and specific scope of works and detailed specification of all fixtures, materials and finishes with costs included will be good for both the contractor and yourself.

You will not have a good outcome of your home remodeling project if the contractor in the end is not happy as well because of misunderstandings and bad communication with you.

6. Do not leave too much money to the contractor in the way of an initial deposit, before he commences work. Leave an initial deposit only when the contractor has arrived on site and work commenced, while the progress payments should only be made for the amount of estimated completion.

7. Under no circumstances pay all the money to the contractor until the job is inspected and completed.

In case of you having the local authority inspector needing to do the final inspection before you can use the space to live in, then keep a good portion of the money to pay until that final inspection is completed and all the defects repaired.

You have to honor the contract but there should be a clause in it, stating that you have to pay the final installment only after full completion.

It is probable that if you pay everything before the job completion it will be hard ton get the contractor back to finish and fix defects.

8. Have enough money to complete the job.

You will find that if you don't have the money and resources to complete your project, it could lead to all sorts of personal and financial hardship and make life hard on the children and other family members.

Rarely does the remodeling project end up costing exactly what you planned for because there are always things that happen that you cannot foresee. So allow for a bit extra than you have estimated the cost to be.

By not being able to finish what you started and have the part of your home exposed to the weather, like unfinished roof or walls etc, you could end up having to redo a lot of the work you've done because of water damage and other issues arising from that.

If you intended to rent out the new space you are creating with the home remodeling you started, it could lead to a loss of income you were relying on.

If you did not have the money to finish your heating in the new space and the winter comes it could lead to water pipes freezing and causing a lot of damage for example.

At the end of the day nobody likes to run out of money and not be able to complete the job and the disruption to your life can be overwhelming if you have to live in that unfinished mess.

9. Treat work safety and health issues seriously and barricade off the remodeling work area for example, so that children and others do not end up walking into work area and injure themselves.

Make sure you use appropriate personal safety equipment like steel capped boots, eye protection and ear plugs to name a few.

Don't try to use a ladder to do work that you could easily slip off if you need to use a jackhammer or a power saw for example. Make an elevated platform with trestles and planks or scaffolding if necessary. It is very easy to fall of the ladder or injure your back while trying to hold a heavy tool and work from a ladder

Keep the work area free from materials and rubble lying around the floor. Clean up the floors regularly to avoid injuries.

10. It's important that you and the contractors know precisely the position of the main switch, valves for water, electricity and gas as well as other services while remodeling is taking place.

You need to be able to switch off electricity, water supply or gas supply very quickly in case of an emergency. For example, you are drilling a hole in the wall and hit and puncture a water pipe, which is not uncommon, so you need to know where you need to go to turn off the mains supply. That water could be spraying onto a power outlet close by, so you need to know where the main power switchboard is to quickly switch it off.

A lot of damage can be caused by leaking water, gas or faulty electrical wiring.

Your remodeling project will have it's own issues and problems to overcome. It will have specific issues and complexities different to other home remodeling projects, but if you plan ahead and follow my advice in the listed points above you will more than likely avoid many disasters that could happen in your home repair and remodeling project.

 

Expert Author Vladimir Mesic

When starting an online business, the following important facts can be a difference between success or failure:

A. You need to choose the business model that is based on your expertise, skills and time or money you have to invest into the business. You can choose from the following 3 business models:

1. E-commerce,
2. Affiliate marketing or
3. Lead generation.

In the case of e-commerce, you are going to sell either physical products or digital products. In case of affiliate marketing, you will be sending traffic to another products or services provider and get paid for it. If it's lead generation it will require skills such as email marketing.

B. Be honest with yourself. Do you have any business experience offline or any other business experience. Do you know what running a business involves and do you have the skills needed.In the beginning you can not outsource everything because you need to build a system first and later have people following and working the system. In order to do that you need many skills and being a strategic thinker is not enough.

C. One thing is starting an online business, which in itself takes skills and market research etc but you need to have a short term and a long term plan. That will depend on your own circumstances because one shoe does not fit all when it comes to your personal abilities, skills and circumstances.

D. Choose your market niche carefully. Before starting an online business it's crucial that you do your market research on your niche. First, is there enough buyers out there who are searching for those money keywords that you have to find in the first place. If the market in that niche is big, is there too much competition and how long are you prepared to climb the SEO ladder, competing with these established businesses and so on. Or maybe there is not enough buyers in that niche, so the fact that there is little competition out there could mean that you should not pursue that market niche because there simply is not much money spent out there.

E. Do you have a unique approach, product or service or one that will distinguish yourself from all the others out there competing against each other.

F. Are you prepared to work many times harder and longer, at least initially, when starting an online business, than you would working for someone else, because it can get discouraging and lonely out there on your own. You make all the decisions about every aspect of your business and have to live and take responsibility for everything including results, be it success or failure.

G. Do you know the difference between starting an online business and having a business as a result or starting an online business and ending up being a slave to it and working harder and longer hours than before. So you need to think ahead about being able to have the business basically run itself on autopilot by leveraging what you are good at and concentrating on it while having others do all the rest of the work. There is simply not enough time and it doesn't make business sense to try to do most of the things your self. I have found that out the hard way.

When starting an online business initially you don't realize how many different things have to work properly and how things change fast online. Google keeps changing it's rules, what worked few months ago let alone years ago, doesn't work at all anymore and the online tools and technology keeps running ahead of you.

After saying all that, starting an online business and making money from it, is many times easier, less costly and less riskier than most offline businesses. Even so there are countless number of beginners out there who try making money online and a great majority of them fail miserably and loose money in the process.

However, I think that most of these people, even the ones with a good mindset, probably didn't even succeed in starting an online business, let alone having a business to make money with. Rather, most people look for push button, business in a box models that are going to make them thousands overnight with very little or no effort. Instead they should focus on building a business, getting skills and providing top products and/or services to buyers who are searching for those types of products or services, and they should be thinking more long term.

 

Expert Author Vladimir Mesic

If you think email list building is important for your business then you are Wrong. Actually it is not just important but crucial to your online success and without it you will work hard and get nowhere fast.Here are some valuable tips and some proven strategies used by some of the best marketers in the business.

Perhaps you don't realize the importance of building your lists, in which case you are probably a newbie or don't realize how most internet marketers make their fortunes.

Maybe you are just too busy running your business and working your butt off trying to keep your business profitable etc., or if you think that email list building is hard, complicated or expensive, so you didn't do the crucial thing you needed to do. List building is not as hard as you might think.

There are many tools and resources available out there on the internet that can make your email list building task relatively easy, inexpensive and even fun. Just like in most endeavours, there is a right way and a wrong way to do something and building your lists included. There is a lot of garbage out there online, so it's hard to know who to trust and what information to keep and which to discard.A lot of that info is either out of date, incomplete or plain wrong.

Whatever your niche market happens to be, in fact even if your business is primarily offline, you need to focus on building your email lists for the following reasons.

One, by making it possible for your visitors and potential customers to leave their info in the optin box you are not leaving money on the table or bleeding traffic and you are starting to build a relationship with them thereby being able to send them your sales offers in the near and distant future.

There is a proven way to capture your visitors names and email addresses and establish this relationship but I don't have room for that here. The best way is to offer them something of great value or to help them solve their problem. This should be something of value like a free report, ebook, newsletter,free download of software or similar which you offer to send them when they leave their name and email address.

The right way to establish a relationship with your list, once you capture their names and email addresses, is to continue to send them useful and helpful information. The more value you give to them the more trust and respect you will get and they will become to see you as a friend and guess who they will rather buy from, a stranger or a friend.Sorry no prizes for a correct answer there.

A good reason to concentrate on your email list building is that you will make it much easier on yourself by freeing yourself from the hard work of promoting your business and expenses associated with it, like advertising costs. Whereas by having an email list of your own you can send out an offer to all your list by a click of a mouse, which will cost you next to nothing except some time to write your email and offer.

As long as your sales offer is of value to your list and you don't abuse this ability to reach your list by bombarding your list with constant sales offers without providing value in return, those people on your list will buy from you time and time again and stay on your list.

Now that you know, if you did not already know, how crucial email list building is to your success, go and put your efforts into learning how to build your lists as soon as possible.

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